Chemical Analysis

Effects of common alloying elements in steel

By definition, steel is a combination of iron and carbon. It is alloyed with various elements to improve physical properties and to produce special properties, such as resistance to corrosion or heat. Specific effects of the addition of such elements are outlined below:

Carbon (C) Although carbon is not usually considered an alloying element, it is the most important constituent of steel. Carbon raises tensile strength, hardness, resistance to wear and abrasion; it conversely lowers ductility, toughness, and machinability.

Manganese (Mn) A deoxidizer and degasifier, which reacts with sulfur to improve forgeability. It increases tensile strength, hardness, hardenability, and resistance to wear, while decreasing tendency toward soaling and distortion. Manganese raises the rate of carbon-penetration in carburizing.

Phosphorus (P) Increases strength and hardness and improves machinability, however, it adds marked brittleness or cold-shortness to steel.

Sulfur (S) Improves machinability in free-cutting steels, but without sufficient manganese it produces brittleness at red heat. Sulfur can also decrease weldability, impact toughness, and ductility.

Silicon (Si) A deoxidizer and degasifier, which increases tensile and yield strength, hardness, forgeability, and magnetic permeability.

Chromium (Cr) Increases a material’s tensile strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness. Chromium also creates resistance to wear, abrasion, corrosion, and scaling at elevated temperatures.

Nickel (Ni) Stabilizes the austenitic structure enhancing mechanical properties and fabrication characteristics. Nickel increases strength and hardness without sacrificing ductility and toughness. It also increases resistance to corrosion and scaling at elevated temperatures when introduced in suitable quantities in high-chromium stainless steels.

Molybdenum (Mo) Increases strength, hardness, hardenability, and toughness, as well as creep resistance and strength at elevated temperatures. Molybdenum improves machinability, resistance to corrosion, and intensifies the effects of other alloying elements. In hot-work steels, it increases red-hardness properties.

Tungsten (W) Increases strength, hardness, and toughness. Tungsten steels have superior hot-working and greater cutting efficiency at elevated temperatures.

Vanadium (V) Increases strength, hardness, and resistance to shock impact. It retards grain growth permitting higher quenching temperatures. Vanadium also enhances the red hardness properties of high-speed metal cutting tools and intensifies the individual effects of other major elements.

Cobalt (Co) Increases strength and hardness and permits higher quenching temperatures. Cobalt also intensifies the individual effects of other major elements in more complex steels.

Aluminum (Al) A deoxidizer and degasifier, which retards grain growth and is used to control austenitic grain structure. In nitriding steels, aluminum aids in producing a uniformly hard and strong nitride base when used in amounts 1.00%-1.25%.

Titanium, Columbium or Niobium and Tantalum (Ti, Cb, or Nb, Ta) All used as stabilizing elements in stainless steels, each has a high affinity for carbon and forms carbides, which are uniformly dispersed throughout the steel. Thus, localized depletion of carbon at grain boundaries is prevented.

Lead (Pb) While not strictly an alloying element, lead is added to improve machining characteristics. It is almost completely insoluble in steel. Minute lead particles, well dispersed, reduce friction where the cutting edge contacts the work. The addition of lead also improves chip-breaking formations.

Stainless Steel – Chemistry Analysis
Uns Type Carbon Man-
ganese
Phos-
phorus
Sulfur Silicon Chrome Nickel Molyb-
denum
Copper Others M or
NM
S15500 15 – 5 PH® .07 1. .03 .015 1. 14. – 15.5 3.5 – 5.5 .5 2.5 – 4.5 Cb + Ta = 8xC Min – .45 Max M
S15700 15-7 PH .09 1. .07 .03 1. 14. – 16. 6.5 – 7.75 2. – 3.   Al .75 – 1.5 M
S17400 17-4 PH .07 1. .04 .03 1. 15. – 17.5 3. – 5. 3. – 5.   Cb + Ta = .15 – .45 M
S20910 XM-19 .06 4.- 6. .04 .03 1. 20.5 – 23.5 11.5 – 13.5 1.5 – 3.   N .2 – .4
CB .1 – .3
V .1 – .3
NM
S21800 21800 1. 7. – 9.     3.5 – 4.5 16. – 18. 8. – 9.     N .08 – .18 NM
S30200 302 .15 2. .045 .03 1. 17. – 19. 8. – 10.   .5   NM
S30215 302B .15 2. .045 .03 2. – 3. 17. – 19. 8. – 10.     N .1 NM
S30300 303S .15 2. .2 15 Min. 1. 17. – 19. 8. – 10. .6 .5   NM
S30400 304 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 18. – 20. 8. – 12. .5 .5   NM
S30400-
S30403
304-304L
DUAL
CERTIFIED
.03 2. .045 .03 1. 18. – 20. 8. – 12. .5 .5   NM
S30500 305 .12 2. .045 .03 1. 17. – 19. 11. – 13.       NM
S30800 308 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 19. – 21. 10. – 12.       NM
S30900 309 .08 2. .04 .03 1. 22. – 24. 12. – 15. .75 .5   NM
S30908 309S .08 2. .045 .03 1. 22. – 24. 12. – 15.       NM
S31000 310 .08 2. .045 .03 .3 – .8 24. – 26. 19. – 22. .5 .5   NM
S31000-
S31008
310-310S .08 2. .045 .03 1.5 24. – 26. 19. – 22.       NM
S31254 254 SMO® .02 1. .03 .01 .8 19.5 – 20.5 17.5 – 18.5 6. – 6.5 .5 – 1. N .18 – .22
Fe Balance
INQUIRE
S31400 314 .25 2. .045 .03 1.5 – 3. 23. – 26. 19. – 22.       NM
S31600 316 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 16. – 18. 10. – 14. 2. – 3. .5   NM
S31600-
S31603
316-316L
DUAL
CERTIFIED
.03 1.25-2. .04 .03 1. 16. – 18. 10. – 14. 2. – 3. .5   NM
S31700 317 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 18. – 20. 11. – 15. 3. – 4.     NM
S31700-
S31703
317-317L
DUAL
CERTIFIED
.03 2. .045 .03 1. 18. – 20. 11. – 15. 3. – 4.     NM
Uns Type Carbon Man-
ganese
Phos
phorus
Sulfur Silicon Chrome Nickel Molyb-
denum
Copper Others M or
NM
S31803 DUPLEX .03 2. .03 .02 1. 21. – 23. 4.5 – 6.5 2.5 – 3.5   N .08 – .2 INQUIRE
S32750 SUPER DUPLEX .03 1.2 .035 .02 .08 24. – 26. 6. – .8 3. – 5. .5 N .24 – .32 INQUIRE
S32100 321 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 17. – 19. 9. – 12. .5 .5 Ti 5xC Min. NM
S34700 347 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 17. – 19. 9. – 13. .5 .5 Cb + Ta = 10xC Max. NM
S34800 348 .08 2. .045 .03 1. 17. – 19. 9. – 12.     Cb 10x C-1.10.
Ta 0.1
Co 0.2
NM
S40300 403 .15 1. .04 .03 .5 11.5 – 13. .75 .5 .5   M
S41000 410 .15 1. .04 .03 1. 11.5 – 13.5 .75 .5 .5 Al .05
Sn .05
N .08
M
S41400 414 .15 1. .04 .03 1. 11.5 – 13.5 1.25 – 2.5       M
S41600 416 .15 1.25 .06 .15 Min. 1. 12. – 14. .5 .6 .5   M
S42000 420 .15 Min. 1. .04 .03 1. 12. – 14. .5 .5 .5   M
S42020 420F .3 – .4 1.25 .06 .15 – .35 1. 12. – 14. .5 .6     M
S42023 420F Se .15 1. .04 .03 1. 13.   .6   Fe 84. Se .15 M
S42200 422 .2 – .25 1. .04 .03 1. 11. – 13.5 .5 – 1. .75 – 1.25   V .2 – .5
W .75 – 1.25
Fe Balance
M
S43000 430 .12 1. .04 .03 1. 16. – 18. .75 .5 .5   M
S43020 430F .12 1.25 .06 .15 – .4 1. 16. – 18.   .6     M
S43100 431 .2 1. .04 .03 1. 15. – 17. 1.25 – 2.5 .5 .5 N .1 M
S44002 440A .6 – .75 1. .04 .03 1. 16. – 18. .75 .75 .5   M
S44003 440B .75 – .95 1. .04 .03 1. 16. – 18.   .75     M
S44004 440C .95 – 1.2 1. .04 .03 1. 16. – 18. .75 .75 .5   M
S44020 440F .95 – 1.2 1.25 .06 .15 min 1. 16. – 18. .5     Cu .6 M
S44023 440F Se .95 – 1.2 1.25 .04 .03 1. 16. – 18. .75 .4 – .6 .5 Sn .05
N .08
Se .15 – .25
M
S44660 446 .2 1.5 .04 .03 1. 23. – 27.       N .25 M

M = Magnetic     NM = Non-magnetic

Nickel Alloy – Chemistry Analysis
Uns Type Carbon Man-
ganese
Phos-
phorus
Sulfur Silicon Chrome Nickel Molyb-
denum
Copper Others M or
NM
N02200 200 .15 .35   .01 .35   Ni + Co = 99. Min   .25 Fe .4 M
N04400 400 .3 2.   .024 .5   Ni + Co = 63. – 70.   Balance Fe .25 INQUIRE
N04405 405 .3 2.   .025-.06 .5   Ni + Co = 63. Min   28. – 34. Fe 2.5 INQUIRE
N05500 500 .25 1.5   .01 .05   Ni + Co = 63. – 70.   Balance Al 2.3 – 3.15
Ti .35 – .85
Fe 2.
INQUIRE
N06600 600 .15 1.   .15 .5 14. – 17. 72. Min .5   Al .35
Ti .5
Cb + Ta = 1.
Co 1.
Fe 6. – 10.
NM
N06625 625 .1 .5 .15 .015 .5 20. – 23. Balance 8. – 10.   Al .4
Ti .4
Co 1.
Cb + Ta 3.15 – 4.15
Fe 5.
NM
N07718 718 .08 .35 .015 .015 .35 17. – 21. 50. – 55. 2.8 – 3.3 .3 Co 1.
Cb + Ta = 4.75 – 5.5
Ti .65 – 1.15
B .006
Al .2 – .8
NM
N08020 ALLOY 20 .07 2. .045 .035 1. 19. – 21. 32. – 38. 2. – 3. 3. – 4. Co 1.
Cb + Ta = 4.75 – 5.5
Ti .65 – 1.15
B .006
Al .2 – .8
NM
N10276 C-276 .08 1. .04 .03 .08 14.5 – 16.5 Balance 15. – 17.   Co 2.5
W 3. – 4.5
V .35
NM

M = Magnetic     NM = Non-magnetic

254 SMO® is a trademark of Avesta.
15 – 5 PH® is a trademark of Armco Inc.
The information above is not warranted, guaranteed, or for design purposes.

The information above is not warranted, guaranteed, or for design purposes.

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